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Int Orthop 1995;19(2):69-71

Medial epicondylitis of the elbow.

O'Dwyer KJ, Howie CR

Princess Elizabeth Orthopaedic Hospital, Exeter, England.

Ninety-five cases of medial epicondylitis are reported in 83 patients; 90% were related to work and only 10% to sport or leisure activities. Most recovered with conservative treatment. Operation was needed in 12%, which compared with under 4% of patients with lateral epicondylitis over the same period. The results of open release of the common flexor origin were good, with only one exception.

Am J Sports Med 1994 Sep;22(5):674-679

Medial epicondylitis. An electromyographic analysis and an investigation of intervention strategies.

Glazebrook MA, Curwin S, Islam MN, Kozey J, Stanish WD

School of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Flexor and extensor muscle-tendon unit activity at the elbow during the golf swing was recorded from subjects with and without medial epicondylitis. There was no significant difference in total swing time between symptomatic (1.23 +/- 0.15 sec) and asymptomatic (1.15 +/- 0.13 sec) subjects nor between golfers with low (1 to 6 handicap, N = 8) and high (11 to 19 handicap, N = 8) scoring abilities. Symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects displayed similar electromyographic profiles for flexor and extensor muscles of the forearm. Electromyographic activity of the common extensor muscles was persistent throughout the four swing phases, ranging from 33.59% of maximum voluntary contraction at address to 58.77% at contact. Common flexor muscles produced a consistent burst of electromyographic activity during contact phase (flexor burst, 90.77&# 037; of maximum voluntary contraction). Symptomatic subjects' mean flexor muscle electromyographic activity was significantly greater than that of asymptomatic subjects in both address and swing phases. When forearm brace and oversized grips were imposed on symptomatic subjects, there was no significant difference in mean electromyographic magnitude or muscle activation pattern during the golf swing. Thus, the method of symptomatic relief of the intervention strategies tested is still in question.

Hand Clin 1994 Feb;10(1):157-163

Lateral and medial epicondylitis.

Bennett JB

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Lateral and medial epicondylitis (tennis elbow) are common pain complaints about the elbow in the adult. Disability from persistent pain and weakness at the elbow lead to surgical correction of the disorder. Complications of surgery arise from the improper diagnosis of the origin of the pain, failure to correct the pathology with the surgical procedure, and resultant profound forearm weakness or elbow instability. Rehabilitation during the postoperative period is critical for successful return to work or sports activity.

Z Unfallchir Versicherungsmed 1993;86(3):145-148

[Medial epicondylitis. Etiology, diagnosis, therapeutic modalities].

[Article in French]

Tschantz P, Meine J

Service de chirurgie, Hopital des Cadolles, Neuchatel.

Medial epicondylitis is rather uncommon, less frequent than external epicondylitis. For this reason, the diagnosis is thought of rather late. While taking the history, one should try to find out the possible causative effects. Symptoms of irritation of the cubital nerve, which are present in one out of five cases should be looked for. Several sports such as baseball, javelin or weight throwing, volleyball, climbing, tennis, golf, which need a strong flexion of the hand and fingers can induce this condition. However, in more than half of our patients, sports or professional activities were not in cause. The majority were housewives and do-it-yourself enthusiasts. Among our 55 operated cases, out of which few had professional or sports activities, we did not encounter during the operation the macroscopic tendinous lesions that are sometimes described by some authors. The treatment should be conservative in all cases. This includes rest, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, muscular stretching, immobilisation in a cast, steroid infiltrations. One patient out of ten will have to be operated on. The operative techniques differ on some details, but they all include the desinsertion of the flexor muscles on the medial epicondyle. When there are clinical signs of irritation of the cubital nerve, it should be transposed anteriorly. The result of these operations is good in more than 90 per cent of the cases. However, a come back to professional sport can take as long as 8 months.

Clin Sports Med 1987 Apr;6(2):259-272

Lateral and medial epicondylitis of the elbow.

Leach RE, Miller JK

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston University Medical Center, Massachusetts.

Tennis elbow is a common condition, with the extensor carpi radialis brevis attachment being the usual site of pain. Conservative care including decreased activity, ice, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, and muscle strengthening will help most people. The small percentage of cases that require surgery usually benefit from debridement of the damaged portion of the extensor carpi radialis brevis attachment. The postoperative course must include muscle strengthening and a gradual return to activity.

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