1: Arthroscopy 2000 Sep;16(6):600-5

Osteolysis of the distal clavicle: long-term results of arthroscopic resection.

Zawadsky M, Marra G, Wiater JM, Levine WN, Pollock RG, Flatow EL, Bigliani LU

The Shoulder Service, New York Orthopaedic Hospital, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center Campus, New York, New York, USA.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of arthroscopic distal clavicle resection by the direct superior approach for treatment of isolated osteolysis of the distal clavicle. TYPE OF STUDY: Case series. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one shoulders in 37 patients underwent arthroscopic resection of the distal clavicle. Thirty-three patients were male and 4 female, with an average age of 39 years. All patients complained of pain localized to the acromioclavicular joint region. Symptoms began after a traumatic event in 18 shoulders and were associated with repetitive stressful activity in 23 shoulders. RESULTS: At an average follow-up of 6.2 years, 22 shoulders had excellent results, 16 had good results, and 3 were failures. All 3 failures occurred in patients with a traumatic etiology. CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopic resection for osteolysis of the distal clavicle has results comparable to open excision with low morbidity. Patients with a traumatic etiology had slightly worse results compared with patients with a microtraumatic etiology.

2: Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998 Apr;30(4 Suppl):S26-32

Acromioclavicular joint disorders.

Turnbull JR

Department of Surgery, Chatham-Kent Health Alliance, Chatham, Ontario, Canada.

The acromioclavicular joint is commonly involved in athletic injuries. Most commonly, a sprain to the joint occurs with variability in the amount of ligamentous damage and displacement that occurs. In all but the most severe dislocations, treatment consists of initial sling immobilization and early functional rehabilitation. The outcome is usually excellent with full return of function following these injuries. The rarer types (IV, V, and VI) require operative reduction and fixation. Distal clavicle fractures are related injuries, which many times disrupt the stabilizing ligaments of the acromioclavicular joint. Many can be treated nonoperatively, but there are several subtypes that should be considered for early fixation to reduce complications of pain and shoulder dysfunction. An atraumatic, overuse condition, which is becoming more prevalent and seems related to weight training, is osteolysis of the distal clavicle. There is insidious onset of shoulder pain with symptoms and signs consistent with acromioclavicular pathology. Activity modification is the best method of controlling symptoms. Failure of the conservative approach necessitates operative excision of the distal clavicle.

3: Am J Sports Med 1998 Mar-Apr;26(2):189-92

Arthroscopic distal clavicle resection for isolated atraumatic osteolysis in weight lifters.

Auge WK 2nd, Fischer RA

The Ohio State University, Division of Orthopedics, Columbus 43221, USA.

Ten consecutive patients with isolated atraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle who had failed results with conservative treatment were treated with arthroscopic resection of the involved distal clavicle (average, 4.5 mm). All patients were men with an average age of 30.4 years, had unilateral involvement, and were considered aggressive amateur to elite weight lifters or bodybuilders. Postoperative symptoms consisted of pain at the incision and discomfort from extravasation of the irrigation fluid. At an average followup of 18.7 months, all patients had returned to their sport (average, 3.2 days) and to their preoperative weight training program (average, 9.1 days). They continued to be asymptomatic throughout the follow-up period and were able to increase both their training volume and strength from preoperative levels. Limited arthroscopic resection of the distal clavicle for isolated atraumatic osteolysis is a viable alternative for the weight lifter or bodybuilder. The ability to continue training without significant interruption as well as a more acceptable cosmetic appearance are benefits for these patients. Limited arthroscopic resection of the distal clavicle may be sufficient for this entity in this patient population, rather than the 1 to 2 cm previously reported. A sport-specific functional outcome questionnaire has been developed for this patient population.

4: Am J Sports Med 1998 Jan-Feb;26(1):137-44

The evaluation and treatment of the injured acromioclavicular joint in athletes.

Lemos MJ

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lahey Hitchcock Medical Center, Burlington, MA 01805, USA.

Injuries to the acromioclavicular joint are among the most commonly occurring problems in the athletic patient population. However, these injuries are often confused with other problems associated with the shoulder complex. This confusion was noted by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), who realized that acromioclavicular dislocation often was misdiagnosed as a glenohumeral injury. Galen (129-199 AD) experienced an acromioclavicular dislocation and could not tolerate the tight bandaging recommended at the time and thus became one of the earliest noncompliant patients. The understanding of acromioclavicular injuries and their management has evolved rapidly during the last 2 decades. This review will clarify the current concepts in the management and treatment of acromioclavicular injuries in the athlete.

5: Am J Sports Med 1996 Sep-Oct;24(5):665-9

Shoulder injuries during alpine skiing.

Kocher MS, Feagin JA Jr

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

We retrospectively reviewed alpine skiing injuries at a destination ski resort during three seasons to characterize the incidence and types of shoulder injuries. A total of 3451 injuries in 3247 patients were reviewed. The overall injury rate was 4.44 injuries per 1000 skier-days. Injuries to the upper extremity represented 29.1% (N = 1004) of all alpine ski injuries. Injuries involving the shoulder complex (393 injuries in 350 patients) accounted for 39.1% of upper extremity injuries and 11.4% of all alpine skiing injuries. The rate of shoulder injury was 0.51 injuries per 1000 skier-days. Patients with shoulder injuries had a mean age of 35.4 years, and the male-to-female ratio of these patients was 3:1. Falls represented the most common mechanism of shoulder injury (93.9%) in addition to collisions with skiers (2.8%), pole planning (2.3%), and collisions with trees (1%). The most common shoulder injuries were rotator cuff strains (24.2%), anterior glenohumeral dislocations or subluxations (21.6%), acromioclavicular separations (19.6%), and clavicle fractures (10.9%). Less common shoulder injuries included greater tuberosity fractures (6.9%), trapezius muscle strains (6.4%), proximal humeral fractures (3.3%), biceps tendon strains (2.3%), glenoid fractures (1.5%), scapular fractures (1%), humeral head fractures (1%), sternoclavicular separations (0.5%), an acromial fracture (0.3%), a posterior glenohumeral dislocation (0.3%), and a biceps tendon dislocation (0.3%).

6: J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1995 Mar;21(3):172-5

Fabricating a splint for deep friction massage.

Steward B, Woodman R, Hurlburt D

Quinnipiac College, Hamden, CT, USA.

Deep friction massage (DFM) is a therapeutic modality for tendinitis, muscle strains, ligamentous sprains, and capsulitis of the trapezio-first-metacarpal joint. Depending on the stage and site of the lesion, treatment sessions may be as brief as 5 minutes or as long as 20 minutes. Many therapists find DFM to be very effective but state that treatment is very fatiguing to administer. Therapists with hypermobile fingers find it particularly difficult to perform. In order to overcome these two problems, a number of splints have been designed to treat various lesions. This article describes how to fabricate one of these splints. This splint is useful for commonly seen lesions such as supraspinatus tendinitis and a sprained acromioclavicular ligament.

7: J Comput Assist Tomogr 1995 Jan-Feb;19(1):92-5

Atraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle: MR findings.

Patten RM

Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the MRI appearance in atraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle (AODC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated MRI, medical records, ancillary diagnostic imaging studies and clinical course in five men and two women (mean age, 39 years) in whom the final clinical diagnosis of AODC was established. None of the patients had significant shoulder injury, but all participated in activities involving repetitive strain of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. In three of these patients, we performed follow-up MRI (ranging from 5 1/2 to 15 months after the initial MRI). RESULTS: In all seven patients, signal intensity changes within the intramedullary portion of the distal clavicle on MRI were consistent with diffuse bone marrow edema. Marrow edema was most conspicuous on STIR imaging and occasionally could be misinterpreted as normal marrow signal patterns on spin-echo imaging. Cortical thinning or irregularity of the distal clavicle was seen in six cases and tiny subchondral cysts were seen in three, corresponding to subtle cystic changes on shoulder radiography. Limited bone scans obtained in two patients showed markedly increased uptake of radiotracer at the distal clavicle and AC joint. Histologic examination in one case showed disruption of articular cartilage, subchondral cysts, and metaplastic bone formation with increased osteoclastic activity. Follow-up MRI in three patients who were asymptomatic following conservative therapy showed normalization of marrow signal intensity. CONCLUSION: Atraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle is a relatively uncommon but important cause of shoulder pain. Particularly when the clinical history is suggestive of repetitive AC joint stress, MRI of the distal clavicle should be examined closely for marrow edema, cortical irregularity, and cystic changes. Such abnormalities may be especially conspicuous when STIR imaging techniques are used.

8: Sports Med 1992 Mar;13(3):214-22

Atraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle. A review.

Cahill BR

Center for Sports Medicine, Peoria, Illinois.

Atraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle (AODC) in athletes is a stress failure syndrome of the distal clavicle. It is related to intolerable exercise doses. For some athletes, the acromioclavicular joint is the weak link in the musculoskeletal system. There is never a history of a major injury to the acromioclavicular joint. It occurs principally in young athletes who have a long history of training and performance. It is further characterised by athletes who generally have an associated intense strength training programme. The condition will inexorably progress to decrease the level of performance and later interfere with activities of daily living. If the athlete is unwilling to alter his or her exercise training and performance regimen, she or he will eventually become surgical candidates. The results of excision of the distal clavicle for AODC are good or excellent in virtually all cases. The diagnosis of AODC is confirmed by the history of accumulative exercise doses and the key historical feature of intensive participation in strength training. Local tenderness will be found at the acromioclavicular joint, plain radiographs will show degenerative changes in the vast majority of cases and joint scintigraphy must be positive to confirm the diagnosis.